How many types of fixtures ?
Fixtures are usually classified according to the machine for which they were designed. The most common two are milling fixtures and drill fixtures.
Milling operations tend to involve large, straight cuts that produce lots of chips and involve varying force. Locating and supporting areas must usually be large and very sturdy in order to accommodate milling operations; strong clamps are also a requirement. Due to the vibration of the machine, positive stops are preferred over friction for securing the workpiece. For high-volume automated processes, milling fixtures usually involve hydraulic or pneumatic clamps.
Drilling fixtures cover a wider range of different designs and procedures than milling fixtures. Though workholding for drills is more often provided by jigs, fixtures are also used for drilling operations.
Two common elements of drilling fixtures are the hole and bushing. Holes are often designed into drilling fixtures, to allow space for the drill bit itself to continue through the workpiece without damaging the fixture or drill, or to guide the drill bit to the appropriate point on the workpiece. Bushings are simple bearing sleeves inserted into these holes to protect them and guide the drill bit.
Because drills tend to apply force in only one direction, support components for drilling fixtures may be simpler. If the drill is aligned pointing down, the same support components may compensate for the forces of both the drill and gravity at once. However, though monodirectional, the force applied by drills tends to be concentrated on a very small area. Drilling fixtures must be designed carefully to prevent the workpiece from bending under the force of the drill.
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